Evan & Elizabeth Davis
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Welsh Hills, Sir Licking
Isaac Smucker, 'Historical Sketch of the Welsh Hills, Licking County, O.,' (in two parts) The Cambrian, Vol. I, No. 2 (March/April), pp. 46-53; No. 3 (May/June 1880), pp. 81-6.
In 1787, John H. Phillips, and his two younger brothers, Thomas and Erasmus, sons of Mr. Thomas Philips, a Welshman of large fortune, were students at a college in Wales. John H. was the reputed author of some seditious or treasonable writings, and to avoid arrest and punishment, he decided to emigrate to America. Accordingly, he sailed for Philadelphia, accompanied by his brothers, who were more or less implicated with him, - arriving in the above named year. They soon after went to live in a Welsh settlement in Chester County, in the vicinity of Philadelphia. Here they met with Chaplain Jones, a Welsh minister. Gen. Anthony Wayne was also a resident of Chester County, and when he organized the expedition against the Indians in the North West Territory, in 1794, through the influence of Chaplain Jones, appointed John H. Phillips a member of his staff.
These sons of Mr. Thomas Phillips succeeded, after much persuasion, in obtaining the consent of their father, who was a man of wealth, to close his business affairs and follow them to America. Mr. Theophilus Rees, a neighbor and friend of Mr. Thomas Phillips, both residents of Carmarthenshire, South Wales, who was likewise a man of liberal means, after a full consideration of the subject, also decided to try his fortunes in the New World, and forthwith proceeded to make arrangements to that end. They accordingly closed up their business, and, when that was accomplished they bade adieu to their native hills in "Wild Walia," and sailed in the ship Amphion, (Capt. Williams), on the first day of April, 1795, (or as some accounts have it in 1796), for the United States, where they arrived safely after a passage of nine weeks. Many of their old Welsh neighbors, by arrangement, through the kind generosity of Messrs. Phillips and Rees, came as emigrants in the same ship with them, though many of them were unable to pay their passage, but agreeing to do so upon earning the money, after their arrival here.
In October, after their arrival, most of this colony removed to Big Valley, in Chester county, Pennsylvania, where there was a Welsh settlement. Mr. Theophilus Rees and Mr. Thomas Phillips lived for some time in or near Philadelphia, but both soon removed to the Welsh settlement in Chester County. Here, however, they did not remain long, but soon, (probably in 1797), they, together with others of their countrymen, who had crossed the Atlantic with them removed to Bulah, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, where they formed a portion of a considerable Welsh settlement. In this community Mr. Phillips' son Thomas, who came over in 1787, died in 1801. The other son, Erasmus, John H. Phillips' brother, died in New York some years later.
In 1801, or earlier, when all our county constituted Licking township, Fairfield County, Mr. Thomas Phillips and Mr. Theophilus Rees purchased two thousand acres of land, situated in what is now the North-eastern Quarter of Granville township. It bordered on the McKean township line, and extended almost to Newark township. They purchased of Mr. Sampson Davis, a Welshman of Philadelphia, who was then an extensive dealer in Western lands. The purchase was made upon the condition that the land proved, upon view of it, to be as represented, the purchasers not having seen it. Accordingly, Chaplain Jones, Morgan Rees, and Simon James, were selected to view the land. They accepted the commission, discharged the duty assigned them, and made such a report as to result in the ratification of the contract. Mr. Rees, and his son-in-law, David Lewis, visited this purchase in 1801.
Late in the same year Mr. Theophilus Rees sent his son John to erect a cabin and clear some of his land, (the western half of the tract having become his), and sow it in wheat, so as to furnish bread for the family upon their arrival, during the next year. He did so - cleared the land, sowed it in wheat, and harrowed it by dragging brush over it with his own hands, to cover it, his horse having strayed away. He also erected a hut or cabin which he occupied during this initial effort at farming in the wilderness. His horse and himself having unceremoniously parted company, necessitated the performance by the latter, of at least a portion of the return jouney to Cambria County, on foot. On arriving at the Ohio river, at or near Fort Pitt, near Pittsburg, much to his surprise, and very greatly to his gratification, he found his horse, standing upon the banks, waiting patiently for the water to flow past, so as to enable him to pursue his homeward journey, having given undoubted manifestations of dissatisfaction with his first experiment of living in the wilderness. Mr. Rees and his horse went through the process of a very cordial renewal of their former acquaintance and travelled on in harmany together, to the very great comfort and gratification of the former, until they arrived at their mutual Cambrian home in the Alleghanies.
In 1802, Mr. Theophilus Rees with his family - David Lewis, a son-in-law of Mr. Rees and David Thomas, another son-in-law, with their families, and Simon James, without his family, left their homes in Bulah, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, for the purpose of permanently occupying and improving the Welsh Hills purchase. Mr. James was to build a cabin on the Phillips tract, and clear some land, and then to return to Cambria, which he did. He, however, removed with his family to the Welsh Hills settlements in 1804. Upon the arrival of this colony of Western emigrants at or near Wheeling, he fell in with a frontiersman, a hunter, scount, and Indian-fighter, by the name of "Jimmy Johnson", who felt quite willing to be transferred to regions father West, as scouting and Indian-fighting, as occupations, had by this time, in a great measure, become obsolete in that locality. Mr. Rees, thinking that an expert in those occupations, and a man of such diversified genius and talents, might be useful to him in this wilderness home, engaged him to accompany him stipulating to sell him one hundred acres of land, to be paid for in such services as he might be able to render. On their arrival at Zanesville, Mr. David Thomas found a demand for the services of a stone mason, which he could render. He therefore remained to work for some time, after which he came to Newark, and lived in a cabin on the St. Nicholas lot, until he built a cabin on his land; and then, late in the same year, or early in 1803, removed to the Welsh Hills, and occupied his cabin.
Mr. David Lewis stopped in Newark, and worked there as a stonemason. His father-in-law, Theophilus Rees, having given him one hundred acres of his land, Mr. Lewis soon took measures to occupy it, which he did by the erection of a cabin, with the help of Patrick Cunningham and his sons. Mr. Cunningham was from the County Tyrone, province of Ulster, Ireland, and settled in 1801 on what has since been known as the Munson farm, and was the second settler in Granville township. Mr. Lewis' cabin was probably built in 1802, but there being a demand for stone masonry in Newark during the years 1802-'03, (the two first years of its existence), he did not leave there to occupy his cabin and improve his land until near the close of the latter year.
But, Theophilus Rees, Simon James, "Jimmy Johnson, and David Thomas, established themselves on the hills in 1802, Messrs. Johnson, Thomas and Lewis constructing cabins for themselves and families; although the last named did not occupy his until the next year. Simon James' occupancy, however, in accordance with the original intention, was at this time only temporary. Theophilus Rees, David Lewis, David Thomas, Simon James, and "Jimmy Johnson", were, therefore, the Welsh Hills Pioneers. David Thomas was afterwards known as big Davy Thomas, to distinguish him from the smaller man of the same name, also a son-in-law of Theophilus Rees, and whom in 1810, settled on the purchase of Mr. Rees, he having been presented with one hundred acres of it.
Theophilus Rees, the patriarch of the Welsh Hills, was a gentleman and a scholar - a man of intelligence, integrity, and of great usefulness to his countrymen, and to the church. I transcribe from Howe's History of Ohio the following incident of him which occurred in the early days of the "Welsh Hills Settlement," and which pertains properly to his history, and is entitled to my effort in this connection, to incorporate it into this paper of our local records and biographical sketches.
"Deacon Theophilus Rees, Welsh Baptist, settled in1802 in the wilderness about one mile and a half north of the present village of Granville, which was then an unbroken wilderness. The Granville Company settled upon the site of that village in November, 1805. During those intervening three years Deacon Rees had not enjoyed a single opportunity of public religious worship. His cows had strayed away, and one Sunday, hearing the lowing of cattle, which turned out to be those of the Granville colony, of whose arrival he had not heard, he set out towards them thinking they were his own without any doubt. As he ascended the hills overlooking the town plat, he heard the singing of the new settlers, in the act of public worship. The reverberation of the sound from hill-tops and trees, threw the good man into a serious dilemma. The music, at first, seemed to be behind, then in the tops of the trees or the clouds.
He stopped, til by accurate listening he caught the direction of the sound, and went on over the brow of the hill where he saw, on the level before him, a congregation engaged in public worship, in the forest. On reaching home he told his wife his experiences and discoveries, and observed that "the promise of God is a bond", a Welsh phrase signifying that we have security, equal to a bond, that religion will prevail everywhere. He said, 'These must be good people - I am not afraid to go among them.' Although Deacon Rees understood English imperfectly, he yet, afterwards constantly attended the meetings of the Granville colony, (which were held every Sabbath), until the organization of the Welsh Hills Church in 1808.
This incident made such an impression on the mind of Deacon Rees, that he cased not to relate it over afterwards while he lived, when he found himself in the company of his pioneer friends, and new comers. Such was the charm of that music in the wilderness, from so many voices, that the relation of the incident, especially to Christian listeners, was always enjoyed by him as a great luxury. And no marvel."
John H. Phillips, the college boy of 1787 - the youthful seditious writer of Wales, - who left his country in haste, to secure his own safety, arrived for the first time on the Welsh Hills in 1803, or the year after, but he remained only a short time. He returned to Chester County, where his family lived, and superintended the construction of a bridge over the Schuylkill river at Philadelphia. In 1806 he removed to the Welsh Hills, where he taught school and made himself generally useful for about eight years, when he removed to Cincinnati, - where he died in 1832. He was one of the earliest school teachers on the Welsh Hills, and was a man of fair abilities and good scholarship, who made his mark wherever he was. He held some official position in Cincinnati, and was greatly esteemed there as a man of energy, integrity and usefulness. His father's purpose to make a thorough scholar of him was defeated by the young man's severe strictures upon his government, as already stated, which induced, on his part, a somewhat hurried departure for the land of the free.'
Thomas Phillips was largely engaged in business in Cambria county, Pennsylvania, and moving upon his land, immediately, was found impracticable. He, however, visited it in 1804, accompanied by his wife, whose adaptation to frontier life, business capacity, energy and force of character were proverbial. They remained for some time, and then returned to Bulah, in Cambria county, with the determination to bring their business affairs there to a close, and locate themselves, permanently, upon their own ample possessions in the North West Territory. This was accomplished in two years. Therefore, in 1806, Mr. Thomas Phillips and family arrived at the Welsh hills settlement, where he lived until his death, which occurred May 26th 1813. She died, some years before, in Philadelphia, whither she had gone on business.
Mr. Phillips, like his neighbor and friend, Deacon Rees, was a well educated gentleman of large experience, extensive information and reading. It is a singular fact that these veteran pioneers died in the same year, and within a few months of each other, - Mr. Rees in February and Mr. Phillips in May, after having lived together as neighbors in Wales - in eastern Pennsylvania - in Cambria county, Pennsylvania - on the Welsh Hills - and also temporarily on ship-board while crossing the Atlantic! In friendly companionship through a life of many years they lived, and death did not long separate them.
In 1803, James Evans, David Lewis, James James, and a Mr. Shadwick, who, however, was not a Welshman, settled on the Welsh Hills.
Thomas Cramer, son-in-law of "Jimmy Johnson", and his brother, Peter Cramer, came from West Virginia in 1804, as did also Mr. Simon James, who, two years before, accompanied the Rees colony. During the years 1805 and 1806, John Price, Benjamin Jones, John H. Phillips and Thomas Powell, were added to the list of Welshmen in the Welsh Hills settlement.
Samuel J. Phillips and Thomas Owens were among the Welsh settlers of 1807 and 1808; and Jacob Reily and a Mr. McLane, not Welshmen, were immigrants of the same years. Morris Morris, David James and Joseph Evans, father of Joseph and Lewis Evans of Newmark, came in 1809, and "little David Thomas", son-in-law of Theophilus Rees, and Mr. Samuel White, Sr., came in 1810. Mr. White was a son-in-law of Mr. Thomas Phillips, and though not a Welshman, albeit his wife was a native of Wales, he yet became very closely identified with the history of the Welsh Hills settlement. He was born March 4th 1762, in Peterborough, near Boston, in Massachusetts. He was favoured with a partial collegiate education, but before the completion of his college course, he commenced a sea-faring career, which he pursued for two years. He visited the four quarters of the globe, while a seaman, and during that time was ship-wrecked near Cape Horn. He thereupon resolved upon abandoning the life of a sailor, which he did, upon his arrival at the City of Philadelphia. Here, (in the capacity of a teamster he entered into the employ of Mr. Thomas Phillips, in 1797), who was running a wagon line between Philadelphia and the Welsh settlement in Cambria county. Here he married in the same year, with the daughter of his employer. He remained in Cambria county until 1810, when he removed to the Welsh Hills.
Soon after his arrival there, the settlers on the "Hills", met in force, and welcomed a new-comer by building him a cabin. They celebrated the Christmas of 1810 by cutting down the trees, and raising the cabin and riving the clapboards for the roof, splitting and hewing the trees for the floor, building the chimney, and making and hanging the door, so that it was occupied by the stranger and his family at night. Such was the early time pioneer hospitality and neighbourly kindness on the Welsh Hills; and in the judgement of charity, their method of spending the holiday was not very objectionable.
Mr. White was a man of more than common intelligence and education - of an inquisitive mind, extensive reading, independence, frankness and uprightness of character. He was the father of a number of sons, the most conspicuous of whom were Jonathan and Samuel. Mr. White closed his eventful career Sept. 13th 1851, at the good old age of eighty-nine years.
A Welshman, who passed current on the "Hills" as "Dr. Thomas," settled there about the year 1828. He derived most of his consequence from the fact that he placed five sons into the Baptist ministry, who were all more or less distinguished. They were named David, John, Benjamin, Daniel and Evan, and all entered the pulpit while yet very young.
David, the eldest, was for a number of years pastor of the Baptist church in Newark, as was also Benjamin. David was a man of wonderful volubility in the pulpit, and ranked with the first-class of the school known as "revival orators." His brothers also had similar gifts, and were all liberally endowed with talents as public speakers. They were remarkable men whose fame spread abroad, and who made considerable stir in the world as pulpit orators of more than average natural powers. They never enjoyed superior educational advantages, nor attained to any distinction in scholarship. I think they have all deceased except Benjamin.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the purchase of Messrs. Rees and Phillips, formed the nucleus of the Welsh settlement in Licking county.
Theophilus Rees settled upon his half of the purchase, and surrounded himself by his sons, Theophilus and John, and his sons-in-law, the two David Thomases and David Lewis, and his hunter, "Jimmy Johnson," giving to each of them a hundred acres, or thereabouts, of his land.
Mr. Thomas Phillips, settled upon his portion of the purchase, and likewise surrounded himself his sons and son-in-law, giving to each of his sons John H., and Samuel J., about one hundred acres, and to his sons-ion-law, Thomas Owens, Samuel White, William Morrison, and John Evans, an equal quantity. The two latter however never occupied it. Morrison lived on land in the near vicinity, but Evan never came to Licking county. To a grand-daughter, Mr. Phillips gave two hundred acres, but she never occupied it.
It is impracticable to give the names of the immigrants from Wales, who settled in Licking county, in each years, subsequent to the year 1810. It would extend this paper to an unreasonable length, to go into details to that extent. And it is highly probably that the names of a number of those who came here before that time have been omitted. Suffice to say, however, that additions were made to the number from year to year, so that, notwithstanding the numerous deaths and removals, the number of the Welsh inhabitants of Licking county, including those who are in whole or in part of Welsh parentage, cannot be much less than two thousand five hundred, at the present time. They live, principally, in the Welsh Hills settlement, and in the city of Newark, and village of Granville.
Of those immigrants from Wales, who settled on the Welsh Hills after the year 1810, I name Daniel Griffith (1812), Walter Griffith and Nicodemus Griffith (1815), David Pittsford (1816), and Hugh Jones (1819).
Edward Price and Edward Glenn came in 1821, and Rev. Thomas Hughes in 1822. Accessions continued to be made at intervals, to the population of the Welsh Hills, from Wales, but, as above indicated, it would be found tedious to extend the list of names. Of the above named, Daniel Griffith was a man of much more than common shrewdness and natural ability. Walter and Nicodemus Griffiths were also valuable men in the community.
Of those members of the families of Messrs. Rees and Phillips, who came from Wales in 1795, Mrs Elizabeth Thomas, wife of "little David Thomas," and daughter of Theophilus Rees, as the last survivor. She died May 3rd 1855, after a residence in America of sixty years.
Isaac Smucker, 'Historical Sketch of the Welsh Hills, Licking County, Oh.' The Cambrian, Vol. I, No. 3, (May/June 1880), pp.81-6
LOCATION, BOUNDARIES AND DESCRIPTION OF THE "WELSH HILLS"
The portion of the county of Licking in which the first Welsh settlers located, has ever since been known and designated as the "Welsh Hills Settlement". It was originally limited to the north-east quarter of what is now the Township of Granville, but the settlement gradually extended in all directions. Its present boundaries, although somewhat indefinite, may be given with some degree of approximation to accuracy. The Welsh Hills Settlement is mainly within the townships of Newark and Granville, but it extends slightly into the townships of Newton and McKean. It begins at Sharon Valley, at a point about two miles north-west of Newark, and extends in a north-westerly direction into McKean township, and is between five and six miles long. It has a width of four miles or more, extending on the north-east into Newton Township, its south-western boundary being in Granville Township, near the village of Granville. It is all between the road running north from Newark to Utica, and that running West to Alexandria.
The country known as the "Welsh Hills," as its title implies, belongs to the class designated as hilly, but it may be regarded as rather fertile, particularly in the production of the cereals. It was originally all heavily timbered, but is now mostly cleared land. The farms, generally, are not large. Some timber, sufficient for present and prospective purposes, is found on each of them, with rare exceptions.
A considerable quantity of level and slightly undulating land is found on most of the farms, which produces corn and different varieties of grasses well. Soft water springs abound, and it may be considered one of the best watered sections of Licking county, although the streams are small.
The "Welsh Hills Settlement" has always been regarded as one of rare salubriousness, healthfulness being the rule among the hardy robust inhabitants, and sickness the exception.
HARDHSIPS AND PRIVATIONS OF THE WELSH PIONEERS
The earliest settlers on the "Welsh Hills" endured great hardships and privations - both in reaching their wild western homes, and during the first three years after their arrival. They had to cut out roads to enable them with wheeled vehicles, to get to the spot selected for their future homes; and the roads over which they travelled, after crossing the Ohio river, were of recent construction, and but little better than blind paths through the woods. They generally came in wagons, but a few are said to have brought their families in canoes to Zanesville.
Indians often visited the "Welsh Hills Settlement" in early times, but they were not hostile. A sort of a chief, name "Big Jo," and a few of his followers, were frequent visitors at the house of David Lewis, as it still distinctly remembered by one of the members of his family, Mrs Ann Cunningham, wife of John Cunningham, and who was often present during their visitations. They did no harm to the settlers except to frighten the women and children, and were therefore not very welcome visitors among the pioneers.
Wolves were very troublesome to the early settlers on the "Welsh Hills." It is related of a son of Theophilus Rees, that on one occasion, when some distance from the house in the night time, a pack of wolves surrounded and treed him, and then proceeded to gnaw at the tree, and to menacingly demonstrate otherwise against him while resting on the lower limbs of a small tree, evidently for the purpose of securing him as their prey, much to his discomfort. In these hostile acts they had made considerable progress shwn some of the settlers, who had been very opportunely drawn thither by the unusually fierce howlings of the hungry beasts, rescued him. On frequent occasions in the night season, the wolves would gather in force around persons passing from one cabin to another, who had to be relived by their friends armed with guns or torches.
Mrs. Cunningham, above mentioned, states that one night while her brothers, sons of David Lewis, and herself, were engaged in boiling sugar, near their father's house, a pack of wolves surrounded them and assumed such threatening attitudes as to render it necessary for their parents and their neighbors to disperse them, which they did with the aid of torches and firebrands, and perhaps with powder and lead, too. They were held at bay by the boys in the sugar camp, with the free use of their firebands, but the lamost entire exhaustion of their fuel, before the arrival of assistance, rendered their condition extremely perilous.
Bears were numerous, panthers much less so, but they were both enemies - more or less formidable - of the Welsh Hills Pioneers.
CHARACTERISTSC OF THE WELSH SETTLERS IN LICKING COUNTY
The early time Welsh immigrants to Licking county, with but few, if any exceptions, had but a limited knowledge of the English language. They also tenaciously maintained the necessity, propriety, and importance of perpetuating the use of their own vernacular, in their wilderness homes. In these views they did not differed from the Germans and other foreign nationalities, and it is altogether reasonable and natural to entertain such ideas. Settled together on contiguous tracts of land, and in near proximity to each other, and forming a community by themselves, composed almost exclusively of Welshmen, who spoke Welsh, and who knew little of any other language, they were enabled, for many years, to attain their wishes, and give practical effect to their notions with a good degree of success. The result was that the Welsh language, and no other, continued to be spoken in many of these families for a long servis of years. The views they entertained, and the circumstances surrounding them growing out of their own inability to converse in English, and the utter ignorance of the Welsh language on the part of those composing contiguous neighborhoods, made their condition, of necessity, one of isolation, and of apparent exclusiveness, or, as it appeared to some, of clannishness. But this was not their own fault, if fault it was. It was one of the inevitable necessities growing out of their condition. Surrounding circumstance have, generally, a large, indeed ac controlling influence in the formation of character, and they only yield to the law of convenience, or necessity, which forbade unrestrained familier intercourse between the inhabitants of this Welsh settlement and outsiders who spoke another language and who understood not a word of their own. Under these circumsftance, unrestricted social intercourse with their neighboring American fellow-settlers was found to be measurably impracticable, so that our Welsh pioneer friends were necessary somewhat eclusive. Such a combination of circumstance were naturally produced the state of isolation and social condition in which they lived.
The settlement established by the Welsh pioneers, Theophilus Rees, David Thomas and Simon James, in 1802, in our country, as a nucleus around which their countrymen soon rallied in considerable force, has ever since been known as the "Welsh Hills Settlement". There the descendants of the early settlers, together with many others of their countrymen, more recent immigrants, still live; and their Welsh habits and characteristics, though somewhat modified, still predominate. It was wise in them, coming from a far country, into this western wilderness, to settle together and form a community by themselves, thereby securing mutual protection, mutual aid, greatly increase facilities for social enjoyment, mental and moral improvement by the establishment of schools and churches as they desired. As already intimated many of the older persons of the early Welsh settlers never succeeded in acquiring a knowledge of the English language, or even such a knowledge of it as to understand it thoroughly, when spoken by others; and by living together in a community by themselves, the necessity of understanding and speaking the language of the country in which they lived became less imperative. Their children, however, generally overcame this obstacle, and some of the adults acquired such a knowledge of our language as to understand it when spoken, without being able to respond in it, which many of the ultimately both understood and spoke the common colloquial language of the backwoodsmen of our country with a good degree of facility and accuracy. All their descendants of the present generation, both understand and speak it with facility, and receive most of their education and training in it. Religious instruction is still given them in Welsh, in three churches in Granville township, and in two churches in the city of Newark.
Our Welsh pioneers and their descendants, as well as the present Welsh population of Licking Co., may be characterized as pre-eminently religious, adhering generally, either with the Baptist, Calvinistic Methodist or Congregational Churches. They are, with rare exceptions, Calvinistic in their views, holding those peculiar tenets, probably, in their milder form. They are Calvinists at all even whether Baptists, Methodists or Congregationalists. Probably a larger portion of them are church-goers, church members, than is to be for among any other class or nationality of our population, native or foreign. They spend more, very much more time in their churches, for the purpose of receiving and imparting religious instruction, and for devotional exercises, than is usual with other classes of our citizens. They are not surpassed by any of our other churches, or by any other existing system of moral training, in efforts to develop a high order of consistent Christian character. In the language of the prophet, they make themselves "joyful in the house of prayer", and in "song of the night" they make melody. The Welsh people of Licking county sustain five churches, exclusively Welsh, besides forming an integral portion of a number of others, in which they receive religious instruction in the English language. Prominent among these is the Welsh Hills Baptist Church, which was organized with Welsh members, in great part, and sustained to a considerable extent by them ever since.
Our Welsh fellow citizens are also, very generally friends of Temperance. When the Maine Law as in issue, in 1853, they were its unflinching friends. They have always been opposed to free drinking and in favor of Temperance. Especially zealous and ardent friends of Temperance were they during the progress of the Washingtonian movement in 1841, and for several subsequent years.
During all the weary years of almost despairing hopelessness, in which the fierce battle between Freedom and Slavery was raging in our country, the Welsh population of Licking county, stood with great unanimity, on the side of Right against Robbery - of Humanity against Barbarity - of Justice against Oppression - of Liberty against Tyranny - of Freedom against Slavery.
When Protection and Free Trade were contending for so many years, for the supremacy in our governmental policy, the Welsh voters generally rallied under the flag of Protection.
When our Federal Union was imperilled by traitors, they were almost universally loyal to the government, and many of them went forth like heroic-patriots, to meet the cohorts of Treason in deadly conflict on the sanguinary battle field. But few of them, if any, to their honor be it spoken, gave manifestation of sympathy with treason, during the terribly devastating war made by traitors, in the interest of Slavery, against our government. The Welshmen of Licking were Patriots theoretically and practically, and many of them offered up their lives as a sacrifices upon the altar of their country - of Humanity - of Freedom - of Universal Liberty. Let their memory by ever gratefully cherished by their surviving countrymen and fellow patriots.
Our Welsh people have always given encouragement to schools, and other agencies employed for mental and moral improvement. They have been accustomed to read, reflect, reason, and mature their opinions, and when formed they adhere to them with great tenacity - indeed they are proverbial, for firmness, unyielding determination, and decision of character. They hold their opinions because they believe them to be correct, and they never give them up for the sake of accommodation - they don't know how to do it - they are positive men - men of convictions that are not to be surrendered, to please anybody.
The denizens of the Welsh Hills have always been up to the average standard in intelligence and general information. Sustaining Churches, Schools and the Press, as they do, they could not well fail to reach a fair condition of enlightenment.
They place a full estimate upon money, but are nevertheless scrupulously honest and conscientiously upright; generally manifesting a high degree of integrity in their business relations. The present occupants of the Welsh hills, being descendants of the pioneer settlers, have become considerably Americanized, readily adapting themselves to American institutions, language, habits, customs, ideas and modes of thought. They are distinguished for honesty, sobriety, industry, frugality and good citizenship generally, and can justly claim a good degree of exemption for debasing habits, from indulgence in grovelling propensities, from drunkenness, and the debauchery vice and crime which degrade humanity.